Belgian HOWTO

Dag Wieërs

dag@wieers.com

Revision History
Revision 1.1.02001-05-01Revised by: dag
Converted to DocBook v4.1

 

This document describes how to tweak Linux for Belgian users and lists Linux user groups, businesses and other resources in Belgium.

 


Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Why this document?
1.2. New versions of this document
1.3. Translated versions
1.4. Contributions
1.5. Feedback
1.6. Legal stuff
1.7. Todo
2. Configuration
2.1. Keyboard setup
2.1.1. Console
2.1.2. XFree86
2.2. Display and applications
2.2.1. Using the ISO-8859-1 font in console
2.2.2. Support for the Euro symbol
2.3. Time zone
2.4. Locale support
2.4.1. Dutch
2.4.2. French
2.4.3. German
2.4.4. Walloon
2.5. Native language support and codepages
3. Setting up Internet (Belgian ISP information)
3.1. Dialing in with your modem (PPP)
3.1.1. Configuring the modem
3.1.2. Installing pppd
3.1.3. pap-secrets / chap-secrets
3.1.4. Network
3.1.5. File permissions
3.1.6. Dial + Hangup
3.1.7. ISP-dependant information
3.1.7.1. Cable&Wireless (Online, TijdNet)
3.1.7.2. KPN Belgium (Eunet)
3.1.7.3. Planet Internet (Ping)
3.1.7.4. Skynet (Belgacom)
3.1.7.5. Tiscalinet (Freegates, FreeBel)
3.1.7.6. UUNet (VT4)
3.1.7.7. Wanadoo (Euronet)
3.1.7.8. World Online
3.1.7.9. XS4ALL
3.1.7.10. Yucom (DMA)
3.2. Dialing in with your ISDN-modem
3.2.1. Updating the kernel
3.2.2. ISDN4Linux toolkit
3.2.3. Configuring the interface
3.2.4. pap-secrets / chap-secrets
3.2.5. Network
3.2.6. File permissions
3.2.7. Dial + Hangup
3.3. Cablemodem (DHCP)
3.3.1. UPC Belgium (Chello, TVD)
3.3.2. Pandora (Telenet)
3.4. ADSL
3.4.1. Easynet
3.4.2. KPN Belgium (Eunet)
3.4.3. Turboline (Belgacom)
4. Belgian Linux user groups
4.1. ALLIN Linux User Group
4.2. Antwerp Linux User Group (ALUG)
4.3. Brussels Linux User Group (BeLUGa)
4.4. Computer Forum KaHo (CFK)
4.5. HCC Limburgse Linux Gebruikers Groep (HLLGG)
4.6. HCC Linux Gebruikers Groep Leuven
4.7. Independent Group of Unix-Alikes and Network Activists (IGUANA)
4.8. Infogroep (IGWE)
4.9. Leuvense Linux Users (L2U)
4.10. Limburgse Linux User Group (LILUG)
4.11. Linux User Group De Bruxelles (BxLUG)
4.12. Linux User Group De Charleroi
4.13. Linux User Group De Liège
4.14. Linux User Group De Namur
4.15. Linux User Group Heist op den Berg
4.16. Linux User Group Mons
4.17. Linux User Movement Underground Mad Belgian Aliens (LUMUMBA)
4.18. LinuxBe.Org A.S.B.L
4.19. Louvain-Li-nux (LLN)
4.20. Open Technology Assembly Linux Special Interest Group
4.21. PC Aktief Computerclub
4.22. Python Blanc Blue Belge (P3B)
4.23. Student Information Networking (SIN)
4.24. TINA
4.25. Unix Lovers Yield Student Services & Internet Support (ULYSSIS)
4.26. West-Vlaamse Linux User Group (Lug-WV)
4.27. Zeus WPI – Werkgroep Informatica RUG
5. Belgian Linux businesses
5.1. aDOC Services
5.2. Arafox
5.3. Aragne
5.4. Better Access N.V.
5.5. BIOS Consulting sa/nv
5.6. CSS N.V.
5.7. D. Connect
5.8. Double Barrel Consultancy and Productions
5.9. Grmbl productions
5.10. IBM Belgium SA/NV
5.11. IP Net generation
5.12. Kangaroot Linux Consultancy
5.13. Mind Linux Solutions
5.14. Phidani Software SPRL
5.15. Spier BVBA
5.16. Stone-IT Belgium
5.17. VA Linux Belgium
5.18. VirgoPlus sprl
6. Belgian Linux resources
6.1. Websites
6.1.1. Linux in Belgium
6.1.2. Dutch Linux-sites
6.1.3. French Linux-sites
6.1.4. Mirrors in Belgium
6.2. HOWTO
6.3. HOWTO translations
6.3.1. Dutch
6.3.2. French
6.3.3. German
6.4. FTP
6.4.1. Kernel-source mirrors
6.4.2. Distribution mirrors
6.4.3. Mirrors in Belgium
6.5. Usenet/Newsgroups
6.6. IRC

1. Introduction

1.1. Why this document?

Since there was no information anywhere on the net for Belgian Linux users, we started to collect stuff that we thought could be important. This HOWTO aims to be the definitive list of all Belgian-related Linux information. If you think not, you have no excuse to complain and certainly not to not contribute. 😉


1.2. New versions of this document

If you need to know more about the Linux Documentation Project or about Linux HOWTO’s, feel free to contact the supervisor Tim Bynum .

Tim Bynum will post the listing to several national and international newsgroups on a monthly basis. In addition, the Belgian HOWTO can be found on the World Wide Web at http://dag.wieers.com/howto/. New versions of the Belgian HOWTO are always placed at this site first, so please be sure to check if the copy you are reading is still up to date!


1.3. Translated versions

This document is currently translated in 3 languages (English, Dutch and French), we’re trying to keep all three of them in sync, but the English version is the source-document!

The English and Dutch version are maintained by Dag Wieërs  and is found at: http://dag.wieers.com/howto/.

The French version is maintained by Dany Vanderroost  and is found at: http://club.euronet.be/dany.vanderroost/howto.html.


1.4. Contributions

A few people mailed us their suggestions and improvements, thanks go to:

 

 

Many thanks go to Ivo Clarysse  who started something similar earlier (http://linbel.iguana.be/) and his project helped us a lot to get this document online.


1.5. Feedback

If some information seems to be wrong, deceptive or missing, we’d appreciate if you mailed us the improvements. Since we’re just human this document isn’t bug-free, but your contribution can and will make a difference.

To add yourself to the Linux user groups or businesses, collect all necessary information and mail it to us.


1.6. Legal stuff

Trademarks are owned by their owners.

Although the information given in this document is believed to be correct, the author will accept no liability for the content of this document. Use the tips and examples given herein at your own risk.

Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2000 by Dag Wieërs. This document may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the LDP license.


1.7. Todo

There are some things I’m planning to add to this document, if you’re interested be sure you’re reading the most current version of this document. (This todo-list is only a reminder to myself, it is not in the translated documents!)

 

  • Integrate LinBel some more (should have done this a long time ago)

  • Add details about how to get Ispell-software for your own language

  • Add more information about ADSL/DANA

 


2. Configuration

2.1. Keyboard setup

Linux provides 2 ways to set up your keyboard. At the console you can use loadkeys and under XFree86 you can use xmodmap.


2.1.1. Console

To use the keytable for a Belgian keyboard you can use loadkeys be2-latin1 or loadkeys be-latin1. The only difference between the two is that be2-latin1 adds support for twosuperior and threesuperior (keycode 41) and grave (keycode 43).

Usually loadkeys is started at boottime from the scripts located somewhere in /etc/rc.d. Different distributions handle it differentely. But most distributions have a simple program (like kbdconfig in Red Hat, install-keymap in Debian or yast in SuSE) to change the scripts.


2.1.2. XFree86

To set your keyboard properly under XFree86 you’ve got more choices. By running Xconfigurator (or a similar program) a config-file for XFree86 is created (with some standard content). This file is called XF86Config and is usually located in /etc or /etc/X11

Make sure (and change otherwise) that something similar to this is given under the Keyboard Section.

        Section "Keyboard"
                Protocol        "Standard"
                XkbRules        "xfree86"
                XkbModel        "pc101"
                XkbLayout       "be"
        EndSection
          

If you own a ‘microsoft’ keyboard (or the less-known penguin keyboards ;p) you can enable those extra 3 keys by changing the “pc101” into “pc104”. (I use the extra keys as meta-keys in my windowmanager so some shortcuts doesn’t conflict with the internal ones of my wm).

To get the AltGr key to work under XFree86 simply add in the Keyboard Section:

                RightAlt        ModeShift
    

To get some key-combinations working under X11, you might want to change in file /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/be:

        key <AD11> {      [ dead_circumflex,       diaeresis      ],
                        [     bracketleft                       ]       };
        key <AC11> {      [          ugrave,         percent      ],
                        [      quoteright                       ]       };
        key <BKSL> {      [              mu,        sterling      ],
                        [       quoteleft                       ]       };
        key <AB10> {      [           equal,            plus      ],
                        [      asciitilde                       ]       };
    

by

        key <AD11> {      [ dead_circumflex,  dead_diaeresis      ],
                        [     bracketleft                       ]       };
        key <AC11> {      [          ugrave,         percent      ],
                        [      dead_acute                       ]       };
        key <BKSL> {      [              mu,        sterling      ],
                        [      dead_grave                       ]       };
        key <AB10> {      [           equal,            plus      ],
                        [      dead_tilde                       ]       };
    

Some people prefer to use a ‘Compose’-key to enter their special characters, like:

        Compose-' e    =>    é
        Compose-/ o    =>    ø
        Compose-c ,    =>    ç
        Compose-c o    =>    ©
        Compose-s s    =>    ß
    

The solution is to enter xmodmap -e "keycode xx = Multi_key" or xmodmap -e "keysym yy = Multi_key" where ‘xx’ is the keycode or ‘yy’ the keysym of the key you choose to be the ‘Compose’-key. (use xev to get these values)

Alternatively you can add keycode xx = Multi_key to your ~/.xmodmaprc. This way it happens automagically.


2.2. Display and applications

Some applications have to be compiled as 8-bit clean to work well with the European characterset. Others like to be told in advance.


2.2.1. Using the ISO-8859-1 font in console

You can load the ISO-8859-1 font by typing the following in console:

        setfont lat1u-16.psf
        mapscrn trivial
        echo -ne '3(K'
    

To be able to use ë, è, é or ç in console, you might want to add these to your ~/.inputrc:

        set meta-flag on
        set convert-meta off
        set output-meta on
    

(This must be done for every user, if you want this to be default for all users you can either add this file to /etc/skel/ or you could add these lines to /etc/inputrc and add the following to /etc/bashrcexport INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc)

Note!: This is only useful to programs that use readline (like bash)

Also set the following environment variables:

        LC_CTYPE=iso-8859-1
        SYSFONT=lat1u-16.psf
        SYSTERM=linux
    

2.2.2. Support for the Euro symbol

Since Europe had to invent a new character, the Euro, there’s a new standard. It’s called ISO-8859-15 (aka Latin-9 or Latin-0). To add support you need both a new font and new keymaps. This is part of every major distribution nowadays, if you have an older distributions you probably need a newer console-tools package.

The changes in the keymap-file consist of the following lines:

        keycode  18 = +e        +E      currency
        keycode  46 = +c        +C      cent
    

And the following environment-variable should be set:

        SYSFONT=lat0-16.psf
    

to make sure you’re using the right font.


2.3. Time zone

Since Belgium is located in the Central European Time zone (aka MET) which (in the winter) is equivalent to the Greenwhich Mean Time plus 1 (GMT+1), you can simply link /usr/lib/zoneinfo/localtime/MET to /etc/localtime symbolicly like:

        ln -sf /usr/lib/zoneinfo/MET /etc/localtime
   

or

        ln -sf /usr/lib/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime
   

This automagically sets Daylight Savings (which is GMT+2 in the summer).

Note!: Different distributions have different paths, zoneinfo can be located in /usr/share or such…

Another note!: Red Hat uses a tool called timeconfig, SuSE uses yast

To change the CMOS clock and then synchronize the system time with the CMOS clock, do something like this:

        hwclock --set --date="Feb 25 03:38"
        clock -u -s
   

If your clock is set to local time (which is discouraged but if you also run broken OS’s, you must), you can do:

        hwclock --set --date="Feb 25 04:38"
        clock -s
   

[Noticed the 1 hour difference ? ;p]

If your computer has Internet-access you can use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to keep your system clock in sync. One way of doing this is by starting ntpdate from cron by adding

        05 0 * * * root /usr/sbin/ntpdate -s ntp.belnet.be > /dev/null 2>&1
   

to your /etc/crontab. Check the ISP-information below to see if your ISP has a NTP-server available.


2.4. Locale support

Not much programs support locale yet, if you want to know more about locale or how to write your own programs to support it, check: [put the damn url here ;p]

Be aware that locale makes it harder to resolve problems as less people can help you !! You might understand a problem when it’s in technical English, but what if it’s translated in some obscure Dutch ?


2.4.1. Dutch

To enable support for the Dutch locale in Belgium on a system with locale support you just have to set the following environment variables:

        LANG=nl
        LANGUAGE=nl_BE
    

Try nl_BE.ISO_8859-1 if nl_BE does not work.


2.4.2. French

If you want French locale support in Belgium, set the following environment variabels:

        LANG=fr
        LANGUAGE=fr_BE
    

Try fr_BE.ISO_8859-1 if fr_BE does not work.


2.4.3. German

If you want instead German locale support in Belgium, set the following environment variabels:

        LANG=de
        LANGUAGE=de_BE
    

Try de_BE.ISO_8859-1 if de_BE does not work.


2.4.4. Walloon

For Walloon locale support you can find files and information at: http://www.linuxi18n.org/locales/walon/. To use it set:

        LANG=wa
        LANGUAGE=wa_BE:fr_BE
    

Try wa_BE.ISO_8859-1 if wa_BE does not work.


2.5. Native language support and codepages

These options add support for the Belgian characterset and codepages. If you’d like to have these, compile a kernel with these options put on. They only apply to some filesystems (FAT-based, ISO9660, …).

        < > Codepage 850 (Europe) 
        < > NLS ISO 8859-1  (Latin 1; Western European Languages)  
        < > NLS ISO 8859-15 (Latin 9; Western European Languages with Euro)
   

Located in Filesystems > Native Language Support

If your kernel is a modular kernel that came with your distribution (=you never compiled a kernel before), then you might want to type:

        insmod nls_cp850
        insmod nls_iso8859_1
        insmod nls_iso8859_15
   

3. Setting up Internet (Belgian ISP information)

3.1. Dialing in with your modem (PPP)

To configure PPP correctly, you should check the PPP-HOWTO. I try to explain it briefly, but if you have any questions or problems, read the HOWTO very carefully.


3.1.1. Configuring the modem

To configure your modem, you can alter the initstring of your modem. To learn more about your modem, check Ask Mr. Modem.

 

Warning

If you have a winmodem you will probably not get it to work. More information about winmodems is at: http://linmodems.org/. Work is underway, but winmodems are not as good as real modems.


3.1.2. Installing pppd

Now, you need to have the ppp-package installed (check this by typing pppd --version), make sure you have a recent one. Then you have to make sure you’ve got these files:

/usr/local/bin/ppp

        #!/bin/sh
        case $1 in
                on|start)
                TELEPHONE='555-1212'        # The telephone number for the connection
                ACCOUNT='your_login'        # The account name for logon (as in 'George Burns')
                PASSWORD='your_pass'        # The password for this account (and 'Gracie Allen')
                INITSTRING='AT&F&C1&D2Z'# Modem initstring
                IPLOCAL=0.0.0.0             # Local IP address if known. Dynamic = 0.0.0.0
                IPREMOTE=0.0.0.0            # Remote IP address if desired. Normally 0.0.0.0
                DEVICE=/dev/ttyS1           # Serial Device com1=ttyS0, com2=ttyS1,...
                SPEED=57600                 # 19200, 38400 or 57600 (don't try something different)
                export TELEPHONE ACCOUNT PASSWORD INITSTRING
                exec /usr/sbin/pppd $DEVICE $SPEED $IPLOCAL:$IPREMOTE \
                        user $ACCOUNT connect /etc/ppp/ppp-on-dialer
                ;;
                off|stop)
                if [ -r /var/run/ppp0.pid ]; then
                        kill -INT `cat /var/run/ppp0.pid`
                        if [ ! "$?" = "0" ]; then
                                rm -f /var/run/ppp0.pid
                                echo "ERROR: Removed stale pid file"
                                exit 1
                        fi
                        exit 0
                fi
                echo "ERROR: PPP link is not active on ppp0"
                exit 1
                ;;
                info|status)
                /usr/sbin/pppstats
                ;;
                *)
                echo "Usage: ppp on|off|info|start|stop|status";
                ;;
        esac
    

/etc/ppp/ppp-on-dialer

        #!/bin/sh
        exec /usr/sbin/chat -v                                        \
                REPORT CONNECTION                                     \
                REPORT CARRIER                                        \
                TIMEOUT              10                               \
                ABORT                '\nBUSY\r'                       \
                ABORT                '\nNO ANSWER\r'                  \
                ABORT                '\nNO CARRIER\r'                 \
                ABORT                '\nNO DIALTONE\r'                \
                ABORT                '\nRINGING\r\n\r\nRINGING\r'     \
                ABORT                'Invalid Login'                  \
                ABORT                'Login incorrect'                \
                ''                   "\r$INITSTRING\r"                \
                'OK-+++\c-OK'        'ATH0'                           \
                TIMEOUT              45                               \
                OK                   "ATDT$TELEPHONE"                 \
                CONNECT              '\d\c'                           \
                ogin:--ogin:         "$ACCOUNT"                       \
                ord:                 "$PASSWORD"
    

You can remove the -v once everything looks normal.

The pppd command uses /etc/ppp/options to list its options, change these options to whatever fits. These defaults normally work in most cases.

        asyncmap 20a0000
        crtscts
        debug
        default-mru
        defaultroute
        detach
        escape 11,13,ff
        hide-password
        ipcp-accept-local
        ipcp-accept-remote
        lcp-echo-failure 4 
        lcp-echo-interval 400 
        lock
        modem
        mtu 1500
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        noipdefault
        passive

        #idle 300 
        #kdebug 0
        #-vj
    

Once dialing in works like a charm, you can leave debug out.

 

Warning

It is important to emphasize that every special character, thus every character that is not [a-ZA-Z0-9] and ‘_’, should be escaped by preceding it with a ‘\’-character. Thus “e!b$l+” would become “e\!b\$l\+”. Try it if you are having troubles !


3.1.3. pap-secrets / chap-secrets

If your ISP requires CHAP or PAP, you need one of these files with their proper username and password:

/etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets

        #client         server  secret          IP      
        your_login      *       your_pass       *
    

3.1.4. Network

To configure your nameservers, change /etc/resolv.conf. If dialing in is succesful, but you can’t get it to connect to URL‘s: this is probably the cause.

        domain domain_of_your_isp
        nameserver your_primary_nameserver
        nameserver your_secondary_nameserver
    

3.1.5. File permissions

Before you can run a (shell)script, it must be set executable. Be sure that you set the permissions so that other users cannot see the passwords stored in the files. If you want other users to be able to dial in, you might want to consider using sudo. You might want to do the following:

     chmod u+rw og-rwx -R /etc/ppp
     chmod u+x /etc/ppp/ppp-on-dialer /usr/local/bin/ppp
    

3.1.6. Dial + Hangup

Then if /usr/local/bin is in your PATH, you can easily dial in with:

        ppp on
    

and hangup with:

        ppp off
    

and to get some statistics, you do:

        ppp status
    

3.1.7. ISP-dependant information

3.1.7.1. Cable&Wireless (Online, TijdNet)

 

Authentication

text-based / PAP

Extra options

noccp

Nameservers

62.112.0.7, 194.88.127.7

NTP-server

ntp.antw.online.be, ntp.brus.online.be, ntp.gent.online.be

Web

http://www.online.be/

Support

no official Linux support yet


3.1.7.2. KPN Belgium (Eunet)

 

Authentication

text-based

Extra options

proxyarp

Nameservers

193.74.208.135, 193.74.208.65, 193.121.171.135

Web

http://www.eunet.be/

Support

http://support.eunet.be/


3.1.7.3. Planet Internet (Ping)

 

Authentication

CHAP

Nameservers

194.119.232.3, 194.119.232.2

NTP-server

ntp.pi.be

Web

http://www.planetinternet.be/

Support

http://www.ping.be/Support/redhat.shtml (Ping)


3.1.7.4. Skynet (Belgacom)

 

Authentication

PAP

Extra options

defaultroute

Nameservers

195.238.2.21, 195.238.2.22

NTP-server

ntp.skynet.be

Web

http://www.skynet.be/

Support

http://help.skynet.be/linux/indexen.html


3.1.7.5. Tiscalinet (Freegates, FreeBel)

 

Authentication

text-based ?

Nameservers

212.35.2.1, 212.35.2.2

NTP-server

ntp.tiscalinet.be

Web

http://www.tiscalinet.be/

Support

no official Linux support yet


3.1.7.6. UUNet (VT4)

 

Authentication

PAP

Nameservers

194.7.1.4, 194.7.15.70

Web

http://www.uunet.be/http://www.vt4.net/

Support

no official support yet


3.1.7.7. Wanadoo (Euronet)

 

Authentication

text-based / PAP

Nameservers

195.74.193.12, 194.134.0.12

Web

http://www.wanadoo.be/

Support

no official Linux support yet


3.1.7.8. World Online

 

Authentication

CHAP

Nameservers

212.233.1.34, 212.233.2.34

Web

http://www.worldonline.be/

Support

http://help.worldonline.be/en/linux/index.htm


3.1.7.9. XS4ALL

 

Authentication

PAP

Nameservers

194.109.6.66, 194.109.9.99

NTP-server

ntp.xs4all.be

Web

http://www.xs4all.be/

Support

http://helpdesk.xs4all.be/ned/linux/index.html


3.1.7.10. Yucom (DMA)

 

Authentication

CHAP

Nameservers

212.8.180.122, 212.8.180.126

NTP-server

ntp.yucom.be

Web

http://www.yucom.be/

Support

no official Linux support yet


3.2. Dialing in with your ISDN-modem

Contributed by Christophe Lambin 

This section does not aim to be a definitive guide on ISDN for Linux. For a more detailed discussion on the topic, see Paul Slootman’s ISDN4Linux HOWTO and ISDN4Linux-FAQ.


3.2.1. Updating the kernel

If you’re using a 2.2 kernel, it’s recommended to get an updated version of the ISDN code. You can retrieve it from CVS at ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/isdn4linux/. For more information, check: http://www.brisse.dk/site/linux/docs/isdn.htm

 

Warning

If you’ve recently purchased an Eicon Diva 2.0 PCI (eg, via Belgacom), there’s a good chance you’ve actually got a Diva 2.01.In this case, you must get a version dated 1 July 1999 or later !

Once the ISDN is in place, you can start up the driver. Eg: modprobe hisax type=11 protocol=2 Refer to the Readme’s for the right parameters and values for your card.


3.2.2. ISDN4Linux toolkit

Next, you’ll need the ISDN4Linux toolkit. You can retrieve the latest version of the toolkit at: ftp://ftp.suse.com/pub/isdn4linux/


3.2.3. Configuring the interface

With the tools installed and configured, write a script to configure the interface, to be used for the ISDN connection. As always in Linux, there’s no one correct way of doing this. I’ve put these in a script

/etc/rc.d/rc.isdn:

        #!/bin/sh
        MSNREMOTE='555-1212'    # Phone number of ISP
        MSNLOCAL='555-1313'     # my number, without 0, with areacode
        ACCOUNT='george'        # The account for logon (as 'George Burns')
        IPLOCAL=10.0.0.2        # my fixed IP (use 10.0.0.2 if no fixed)
        IPREMOTE=0.0.0.0        # IP number of ISP
        INTERFACE=ippp0
        /sbin/modprobe hisax type=11 protocol=2
        /sbin/isdnctrl verbose 3 system on
        /sbin/isdnctrl addif $IF
        /sbin/isdnctrl secure $IF on 
        /sbin/isdnctrl addphone $IF out $MSNREMOTE
        /sbin/isdnctrl eaz $IF $MSNLOCAL
        /sbin/isdnctrl huptimeout $IF 300
        /sbin/isdnctrl l2_prot $IF hdlc
        /sbin/isdnctrl l3_prot $IF trans
        /sbin/isdnctrl encap $IF syncppp
#        /sbin/isdnctrl dialmode $IF auto
        /sbin/ifconfig $IF $IPLOCAL pointopoint $IPREMOTE -arp -broadcast
        /sbin/ipppd /dev/ippp0 user $ACCOUNT $IPLOCAL:$IPREMOTE
    

To start this at boot time, make it executable and append the following to /etc/rc.d/rc.local:

        if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.isdn ]; then
                . /etc/rc.d/rc.isdn
        fi
    

The ipppd command gets its parameters passed through a file, /etc/ppp/ioptions:

        -ac
        -bsdcomp
        debug
        defaultroute
        ipcp-accept-local
        ipcp-accept-remote
        mru 1524
        mtu 1500
        noipdefault
        -pc
        useifip
        -vj
        -vjccomp

        #idle 360
        #persistent
    

 

Warning

Do NOT specify +pap or +chap in this file. This specifies the authentication that ipppd should use for an INCOMING client. If you were to use this to connect to your ISP, ipppd would wait for the ISP to authenticate itself using the specified protocol.

 

Warning

It is important to emphasize that every special character, thus every character that is not [a-ZA-Z0-9] and ‘_’ should be escaped by preceding it with a ‘\’-character. Thus ‘e!b$l+’ would become ‘e\!b\$l\+’. Try it if you are having troubles !

Finally, create /etc/ppp/ip-down.local to handle the shutdown of the interface:

        #!/bin/sh
        /sbin/ifconfig $1 down
        sleep 1
        /sbin/ifconfig $1 10.0.0.2 pointopoint 
    

Note!: This is to handle some problems with routes on shutdowns. Anyone know of a clean(er) solution ?


3.2.4. pap-secrets / chap-secrets

If your ISP uses PAP or CHAP, create a file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets. Its format is:

        #client         server  secret          IP      
        your_login      *       your_pass       *
    

3.2.5. Network

Not really related to ISDN, but a lot of people forget this step (too eager to try out all the stuff they typed in above ? :-)).

Anyway, you need to configure the DNS, by creating a file /etc/resolv.conf:

        domain your_domain_of_your_isp
        nameserver your_primary_nameserver
        nameserver your_secondary_nameserver
    

3.2.6. File permissions

Before you can run a (shell)script, it must be set executable. Be sure that you set the permissions so that other users cannot see the passwords stored in the files. If you want other users to be able to dial in, you might want to consider using sudo. You might want to do the following:

     chmod u+rw og-rwx -r /etc/ppp
     chmod u+x /etc/rc.d/rc.isdn /etc/ppp/ip.down-local /usr/local/bin/isdn
    

3.2.7. Dial + Hangup

Finally, you can write a little wrapper to start and stop the ISDN connection. I’ve put this as /usr/local/bin/isdn:

        #!/bin/bash
        case $1 in
                on|start)
                /sbin/isdnctrl dial ippp0
                ;;
                off|stop)
                /sbin/isdnctrl hangup ippp0
                ;;
                info|status)
                /sbin/isdnctrl list ippp0
                ;;
                *)
                echo "Usage: isdn on|off|info|start|stop|status"
                ;;
        esac
    

Then if /usr/local/bin is in your PATH, you can easily dial in with isdn on and hangup with isdn off.


3.3. Cablemodem (DHCP)

DHCP was designed to make life easier, and most of the times it does 😉 More information to set up your DHCP client can be found at: http://www.oswg.org/oswg-nightly/DHCP.html and a list of Frequently Asked Questions from the infamous document of John Wobus at http://www.dhcp.org/ which describes everything you need to know. Along with the information in the Cable-Modem HOWTO (http://www.oswg.org/oswg-nightly/Cable-Modem.html).

Lots of people want to connect a whole network to their cablemodem, that’s not a problem. You’ll need IP-Masquerading and make sure the interface (that speaks to the cablemodem) has the right MAC-address !! Another solution (in case of problems) is to reset your cablemodem.


3.3.1. UPC Belgium (Chello, TVD)

 

NTP-server

time.chello.be

Web

http://www.upcbelgium.be/

Support

no official support yet

More information

http://foobar.starlab.net/~soggie/tvd_linux/


3.3.2. Pandora (Telenet)

 

Automatic proxy

http://pac.pandora.be:8080

HTTP proxy

export http_proxy=”http://proxy.pandora.be:8080/”

NTP-server

ntp.pandora.be

Web

http://www.pandora.be/

Support

no official support yet

More information

http://users.pandora.be/de.boeve/pandora.html


3.4. ADSL


3.4.2. KPN Belgium (Eunet)

 


4. Belgian Linux user groups

More information can be found in the User Group HOWTO A complete list of Linux User Groups is at: http://www.ssc.com/linux/glue/ and at: http://limestone.uoregon.edu/woven/lugww/


4.1. ALLIN Linux User Group

 

Address

 

          Mechelbaan 260
          B-3130 Begijnendijk
        

 

Email

Web

http://come.to/allin/

Contact

Paul Terweduwe 


4.2. Antwerp Linux User Group (ALUG)

 

Address

 

          Van Luppenstraat 70
          B-2018 Antwerp
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)3 218 63 54

Email

Web

http://sunsite.belnet.be/alug/

Meetings

In ACCB (HVR), Herentalsebaan 212 te Deurne

Contact

Armand Verachtert 


4.3. Brussels Linux User Group (BeLUGa)

 

Address

 

          Building F, room 218
          Vrije Universiteit Brussel
          Pleinlaan 2
          B-1050 Brussel
        

 

Email

Web

http://linux.rave.org/

Mailinglist

http://linux.rave.org/mlist.html


4.4. Computer Forum KaHo (CFK)

 


4.5. HCC Limburgse Linux Gebruikers Groep (HLLGG)

 

Email

Web

http://www.uunet.be/hcc/Limburg/

Contact

Andy Peeters & Bruno Tony


4.6. HCC Linux Gebruikers Groep Leuven

 

Address

 

          Diegemstraat 61
          B-1930 Zaventem
        

 

Email

Web

http://www.uunet.be/hcc/Leuven/linux.html

Contact

Yvo Dries 


4.7. Independent Group of Unix-Alikes and Network Activists (IGUANA)

 

Address

 

          Milcampslaan 101
          B-1040 Schaarbeek
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 582 66 50

Fax

+32 (0)2 582 66 50

Email

Web

http://www.iguana.be/


4.8. Infogroep (IGWE)

 

Address

 

          5F218 (building F)
          Pleinlaan 2
          B-1050 Brussels
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 629 33 56

Fax

+32 (0)2 629 33 89

Email

Web

http://igwe.vub.ac.be/


4.9. Leuvense Linux Users (L2U)

 

Email

Web

http://l2u.iguana.be/

Meetings

First wednesday every month in Freinetschool De Zevensprong, Vital Decosterstraat 67, B-3000 Leuven

Mailinglist

http://l2u.iguana.be/mailman/listinfo/members


4.10. Limburgse Linux User Group (LILUG)

 


4.11. Linux User Group De Bruxelles (BxLUG)

 


4.12. Linux User Group De Charleroi

 


4.13. Linux User Group De Liège

 


4.14. Linux User Group De Namur

 


4.15. Linux User Group Heist op den Berg

 

Address

 

          Bergstraat 89
          B-2220 Heist op den Berg
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)495 925 931

Email

Web

http://uk.geocities.com/info_heistselinuxclub/


4.16. Linux User Group Mons

 


4.17. Linux User Movement Underground Mad Belgian Aliens (LUMUMBA)

 

Address

 

          Filii Lamberti
          Universiteitslaan 1
          B-3590 Diepenbeek
        

 

Email

Web

http://lumumba.luc.ac.be/

Mailinglist


4.18. LinuxBe.Org A.S.B.L

 

Address

 

          Boulevard de la Meuse, 23
          B-5100 Jambes
        

 

Email

Web

http://linuxbe.org/

Contact

Cedric Gavage 


4.19. Louvain-Li-nux (LLN)

 

Address

 

          Louvain-la-neuve Linux User Group
          Place des paniers 5/014
          B-1348 Louvain-La-neuve
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)10 454 761

Email

Web

http://lln.udev.org/

Contact

Benjamin Henrion 


4.20. Open Technology Assembly Linux Special Interest Group

 

Address

 

          Kruipstraat 14
          B-1850 Grimbergen
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)11 275 898

Fax

+32 (0)11 270 389

Email

Web

http://www.ota.be/

Contact

Jan Vanhercke 


4.21. PC Aktief Computerclub

 

Address

 

          PC Aktief Computerclub
        

 

Web

http://www.pcaktief.be/

Meetings

Fourth tuesday every month in ‘t Hoveken van Belsele, Nieuwe Baan 130, B-9111 Belsele (Sint-Niklaas)

Contact

Johan De Baere 


4.22. Python Blanc Blue Belge (P3B)

 

Address

 

          Python Blanc Blue Belge (P3B)
        

 

Web

http://www.p3b.org/


4.23. Student Information Networking (SIN)

 

Address

 

          Kleinhoefstraat 4
          B-2440 Geel
        

 

Email

Web

http://www.sin.khk.be/


4.25. Unix Lovers Yield Student Services & Internet Support (ULYSSIS)

 

Address

 

          Holleberg
          Schapenstraat 37, lokaal 91 97
          B-3000 Leuven
        

 

Email

Web

http://www.ulyssis.org/


4.26. West-Vlaamse Linux User Group (Lug-WV)

 

Contact

Thibaut Fernagut 

Web

http://www.lugwv.be/


4.27. Zeus WPI – Werkgroep Informatica RUG

 

Address

 

          Krijgslaan 281 S9
          B-9000 Gent
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)9 264 47 51

Email

Web

http://www.zeus.rug.ac.be/

Comment

Restricted to RUG students


5. Belgian Linux businesses

The Linux Documentation Project contains worldwide lists of Linux businesses, Linux Consultants HOWTO and V.A.R. HOWTO, and can be found at: http://www.linuxports.com/.


5.1. aDOC Services

 

Address

 

          Avenue du Pesage, 31-33
          B-1050 Brussels
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 646 00 76

Email

Web

http://www.adoc-services.com/


5.2. Arafox

 

Address

 

          Avenue Joseph Wybranlaan 40
          B-1070 Brussels
       

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 529 59 91

Fax

+32 (0)2 529 59 92

Email

Web

http://www.arafox.com/


5.4. Better Access N.V.

 

Address

 

          Geldenaakse Vest 6
          B-3000 Leuven
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)16 298 045

Fax

+32 (0)16 298 046

Email

Web

http://www.ba.be/

Type of support

After an onsite installation, we mainly support our customers with SSH remote administration. Most problems are reported by E-mail or by the inhouse-developped webbased supportsystem. This doesn’t mean that once in a while a supportcall comes in.

Special expertise

Security, systemadministration and setups, security (firewalling, tigerteaming, VPN, etc.) Networkdesign, wireless networking, Troubleshooting, product development, etc. Please visit http://www.ba.be for more info.


5.5. BIOS Consulting sa/nv

 

Address

 

          Chée de Neerstalle 240
          B-1190 Bruxelles
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 376 61 97

Fax

+32 (0)2 376 23 99

Email

Web

http://www.biosconsulting.com/


5.6. CSS N.V.

 

Address

 

          Henneaulaan 366
          B-1930 Zaventem
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 718 53 33

Fax

+32 (0)706 53 306

Type of support

support on networking, installation, hardware maintenance, Red Hat certified reseller

Special expertise

Red Hat RHCE


5.7. D. Connect

 

Address

 

          Av. Van Goidtsnoven 33
          B-1180 Uccle
        

 

Email

Web

http://www.dconnect.be/


5.8. Double Barrel Consultancy and Productions

 

Address

 

          Sportstraat 28
          B-9000 Gent
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)9 222 77 64

Fax

+32 (0)9 222 49 76

Email

Web

http://www.double-barrel.be/

Contact

Michael C. Vergallen 

Type of support

phone, email remote network admin, inhouse, onsite.

Special expertise

installation, system admin. internet and intranet connectivity, sendmail, firewalls, proxys, nameservers, troubleshooting software & hardware.


5.9. Grmbl productions

 

Address

 

          Korte Vuldersstraat 30
          B-8000 Brugge
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)50 674 512

Fax

+32 (0)50 342 623

Email

Web

http://www.grmbl.com/


5.10. IBM Belgium SA/NV

 

Address

 

          Square Victoria Regina 1
          B-1210 Brussels
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)2 225 33 33

Fax

+32 (0)2 225 24 73

Email

Web

http://www.ibm.com/be/

Contact

Sam Versluys 


5.11. IP Net generation

 

Address

 

          Cyriel Verschaevelaan 12
          B-2980 Zoersel
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)477 513 987

Email

Web

http://www.ipng.be/

Special expertise

IPnG focuses on Open Source software development.


5.12. Kangaroot Linux Consultancy

 

Address

 

          Leeuwerikstraat 14
          B-2018 Antwerp
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)3 290 81 13

Fax

+32 (0)3 290 81 13

Email

Web

http://www.kangaroot.net/

Contact

Peter Dens 


5.13. Mind Linux Solutions

 

Address

 

          Vaartkom 11
          B-3000 Leuven
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)478 274 069

Fax

+32 (0)16 309 644

Email

Web

http://mind.be/

Contact

Peter Vandenabeele 

Type of support

Installation & configuration, auditing & consultancy, support & maintenance, training & education, research & development.

Special expertise

We are specialised in installing Linux servers for various purposes (Web-, File-, Print- or Mailservers, Routers, Firewalls, VPN, …) in heterogenous networks. We provide support and training for Linux and Open Source products and we develop custom Linux solutions for our customers.


5.14. Phidani Software SPRL

 

Address

 

          Rue de l’autonomie 1
          B-1070 Brussels
        

 

Email

Phone

+32 (0)2 552 06 63

Fax

+32 (0)2 522 09 30

Web

http://www.phidani.be/


5.15. Spier BVBA

 

Address

 

          Knaptandstraat 96-98
          B-9100 Sint-Niklaas
        

 

Email

Phone

+32 (0)3 765 90 61

Fax

+32 (0)3 765 90 62

Web

http://www.spier.be/


5.16. Stone-IT Belgium

 

Address

 

          Minerva Office Brussels
          Minervastraat 14b
          B-1930 Zaventem
        

 

Email

Phone

+32 (0)2 720 88 35

Fax

+32 (0)2 720 51 71

Web

http://www.be.stone-it.com/

Contact

Martijn Smit 

Type of support

Stone-IT is a ‘one-stop’ Linux provider for integrating business environments in which we offer: Linux Consulting, Linux Solutions, Linux Support and Linux Education.

Special expertise

Stone-IT offers high quality Linux expertise and can develop, test and implement Linux in several different business environments such as all kinds of servers (File-/Web-/Name-/Mail-/Print servers), as well as Clustering, VPN, Storage, Firewalls & Routers. Our support consists of Pro Active Monitoring, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Besides having trainers being a Red Hat Certified Engineer we offer Distribution Independent Education.


5.17. VA Linux Belgium

 

Address

 

          Greenhill Campus
          Interleuvenlaan 15A
          B-3001 Haasrode
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)16 208 961

Fax

+32 (0)16 207 973

Email

Web

http://www.valinux.com/

Contact

Erik Goven 


5.18. VirgoPlus sprl

 

Address

 

          Rue E. Solvay 29 A
          B-4000 Liège
        

 

Phone

+32 (0)4 253 00 59

Fax

+32 (0)4 253 00 49

Email

Web

http://www.virgoplus.com/

Contact

Bruno Mairlot 

Type of support

By phone, email, or remote networked administration, inhouse, onsite

Special expertise

Installation, configuration, administration of Linux, internet connection, intranet developpment, firewalls, samba, netatalk, firewalls, proxys, DNS, web server (Apache), mod_perl, MySQL, Gui interface developpment (GTK+). We have acquired a special expertise with the Red Hat distributions.


6. Belgian Linux resources


6.2. HOWTO

The most important collection of Linux information on the net. Please if you encounter erroneous information in one of them, do contact the author. Only that way it will be corrected and we all stand together 😉

 


6.3. HOWTO translations

As Dutch is less wide-spread, it is the least supported. But work is being done to resolve this 😉 (and maybe *you* can help ?!?) French and German translations obviously are already taken care of.


6.3.1. Dutch

A succesfull initiative is making progress, but there’s still a lot to do. If you want to help, start translating and send it there. Check http://nl.linux.org/doc/HOWTO/.


6.3.2. French

French translations of HOWTO’s can be found at: http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/fr/


6.3.3. German

German translations of HOWTO’s can be found at: http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/de/


6.5. Usenet/Newsgroups

 


6.6. IRC

The fastest medium to get support is IRC, but beware. Because IRC is rather anonymous it’s also easy to deceive people.

On IRCnet there’s a channel called #linux.be that is closely related to bcol and the Belgian Linux-scene. The channel is still small, but it surely will grow in time. To get help in English, there’s only one place #linux.

Also Dalnet has a #linux.be channel.