So far, we have described how a stream of data is broken up into datagrams, sent to another computer, and put back together. However something more is needed in order to accomplish anything useful. There has to be a way for you to open a connection to a specified computer, log into it, tell it what file you want, and control the transmission of the file. (If you have a different application in mind, e.g. computer mail, some analogous protocol is needed.) This is done by “application protocols”. The application protocols run “on top” of TCP/IP. That is, when they want to send a message, they give the message to TCP. TCP makes sure it gets delivered to the other end. Because TCP and IP take care of all the networking details, the applications protocols can treat a network connection as if it were a simple byte stream, like a terminal or phone line.
Before going into more details about applications programs, we have to describe how you find an application. Suppose you want to send a file to a computer whose Internet address is 188.8.131.52. To start the process, you need more than just the Internet address. You have to connect to the FTP server at the other end. In general, network programs are specialized for a specific set of tasks. Most systems have separate programs to handle file transfers, remote terminal logins, mail, etc. When you connect to 184.108.40.206, you have to specify that you want to talk to the FTP server. This is done by having “well-known sockets” for each server. Recall that TCP uses port numbers to keep track of individual conversations. User programs normally use more or less random port numbers. However specific port numbers are assigned to the programs that sit waiting for requests. For example, if you want to send a file, you will start a program called “ftp”. It will open a connection using some random number, say 1234, for the port number on its end. However it will specify port number 21 for the other end. This is the official port number for the FTP server. Note that there are two different programs involved. You run ftp on your side. This is a program designed to accept commands from your terminal and pass them on to the other end. The program that you talk to on the other machine is the FTP server. It is designed to accept commands from the network connection, rather than an interactive terminal. There is no need for your program to use a well-known socket number for itself. Nobody is trying to find it. However the servers have to have well-known numbers, so that people can open connections to them and start sending them commands. The official port numbers for each program are given in “Assigned Numbers”.
Note that a connection is actually described by a set of 4 numbers: the Internet address at each end, and the TCP port number at each end. Every datagram has all four of those numbers in it. (The Internet addresses are in the IP header, and the TCP port numbers are in the TCP header.) In order to keep things straight, no two connections can have the same set of numbers. However it is enough for any one number to be different. For example, it is perfectly possible for two different users on a machine to be sending files to the same other machine. This could result in connections with the following parameters:
TCP ports connection
220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168 1234, 21
22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199 1235, 21
Since the same machines are involved, the Internet addresses are the same. Since they are both doing file transfers, one end of the connection involves the well-known port number for FTP. The only thing that differs is the port number for the program that the users are running. That’s enough of a difference. Generally, at least one end of the connection asks the network software to assign it a port number that is guaranteed to be unique. Normally, it’s the user’s end, since the server has to use a well-known number.
Now that we know how to open connections, let’s get back to the applications programs. As mentioned earlier, once TCP has opened a connection, we have something that might as well be a simple wire. All the hard parts are handled by TCP and IP. However we still need some agreement as to what we send over this connection. In effect this is simply an agreement on what set of commands the application will understand, and the format in which they are to be sent. Generally, what is sent is a combination of commands and data. They use context to differentiate. For example, the mail protocol works like this: Your mail program opens a connection to the mail server at the other end. Your program gives it your machine’s name, the sender of the message, and the recipients you want it sent to. It then sends a command saying that it is starting the message. At that point, the other end stops treating what it sees as commands, and starts accepting the message. Your end then starts sending the text of the message. At the end of the message, a special mark is sent (a dot in the first column). After that, both ends understand that your program is again sending commands. This is the simplest way to do things, and the one that most applications use.
File transfer is somewhat more complex. The file transfer protocol involves two different connections. It starts out just like mail. The user’s program sends commands like “log me in as this user”, “here is my password”, “send me the file with this name”. However once the command to send data is sent, a second connection is opened for the data itself. It would certainly be possible to send the data on the same connection, as mail does. However file transfers often take a long time. The designers of the file transfer protocol wanted to allow the user to continue issuing commands while the transfer is going on. For example, the user might make an inquiry, or he might abort the transfer. Thus the designers felt it was best to use a separate connection for the data and leave the original command connection for commands. (It is also possible to open command connections to two different computers, and tell them to send a file from one to the other. In that case, the data couldn’t go over the command connection.)
Remote terminal connections use another mechanism still. For remote logins, there is just one connection. It normally sends data. When it is necessary to send a command (e.g. to set the terminal type or to change some mode), a special character is used to indicate that the next character is a command. If the user happens to type that special character as data, two of them are sent.
We are not going to describe the application protocols in detail in this document. It’s better to read the RFC’s yourself. However there are a couple of common conventions used by applications that will be described here. First, the common network representation: TCP/IP is intended to be usable on any computer. Unfortunately, not all computers agree on how data is represented. There are differences in character codes (ASCII vs. EBCDIC), in end of line conventions (carriage return, line feed, or a representation using counts), and in whether terminals expect characters to be sent individually or a line at a time. In order to allow computers of different kinds to communicate, each applications protocol defines a standard representation. Note that TCP and IP do not care about the representation. TCP simply sends octets. However the programs at both ends have to agree on how the octets are to be interpreted. The RFC for each application specifies the standard representation for that application. Normally it is “net ASCII”. This uses ASCII characters, with end of line denoted by a carriage return followed by a line feed. For remote login, there is also a definition of a “standard terminal”, which turns out to be a half-duplex terminal with echoing happening on the local machine. Most applications also make provisions for the two computers to agree on other representations that they may find more convenient. For example, PDP-10’s have 36-bit words. There is a way that two PDP-10’s can agree to send a 36- bit binary file. Similarly, two systems that prefer full-duplex terminal conversations can agree on that. However each application has a standard representation, which every machine must support.
In order to give a bit better idea what is involved in the application protocols, I’m going to show an example of SMTP, which is the mail protocol. (SMTP is “simple mail transfer protocol”.) We assume that a computer called TOPAZ.RUTGERS.EDU wants to send the following message.
Date: Sat, 27 Jun 87 13:26:31 EDT
Let’s get together Monday at 1pm.
First, note that the format of the message itself is described by an Internet standard (RFC 822). The standard specifies the fact that the message must be transmitted as net ASCII (i.e. it must be ASCII, with carriage return/linefeed to delimit lines). It also describes the general structure, as a group of header lines, then a blank line, and then the body of the message. Finally, it describes the syntax of the header lines in detail. Generally they consist of a keyword and then a value.Note that the addressee is indicated as LEVY@RED.RUTGERS.EDU. Initially, addresses were simply “person at machine”. However recent standards have made things more flexible. There are now provisions for systems to handle other systems’ mail. This can allow automatic forwarding on behalf of computers not connected to the Internet. It can be used to direct mail for a number of systems to one central mail server. Indeed there is no requirement that an actual computer by the name of RED.RUTGERS.EDU even exist. The name servers could be set up so that you mail to department names, and each department’s mail is routed automatically to an appropriate computer. It is also possible that the part before the @ is something other than a user name. It is possible for programs to be set up to process mail. There are also provisions to handle mailing lists, and generic names such as “postmaster” or “operator”.
The way the message is to be sent to another system is described by RFC’s 821 and 974. The program that is going to be doing the sending asks the name server several queries to determine where to route the message. The first query is to find out which machines handle mail for the name RED.RUTGERS.EDU. In this case, the server replies that RED.RUTGERS.EDU handles its own mail. The program then asks for the address of RED.RUTGERS.EDU, which is 188.8.131.52. Then the mail program opens a TCP connection to port 25 on 184.108.40.206. Port 25 is the well-known socket used for receiving mail. Once this connection is established, the mail program starts sending commands. Here is a typical conversation. Each line is labelled as to whether it is from TOPAZ or RED. Note that TOPAZ initiated the connection:
RED 220 RED.RUTGERS.EDU SMTP Service at 29 Jun 87 05:17:18 EDT
TOPAZ HELO topaz.rutgers.edu
RED 250 RED.RUTGERS.EDU – Hello, TOPAZ.RUTGERS.EDU
TOPAZ MAIL From:<email@example.com>
RED 250 MAIL accepted
TOPAZ RCPT To:<firstname.lastname@example.org>
RED 250 Recipient accepted
RED 354 Start mail input; end with .
TOPAZ Date: Sat, 27 Jun 87 13:26:31 EDT
TOPAZ From: email@example.com
TOPAZ To: firstname.lastname@example.org
TOPAZ Subject: meeting
TOPAZ Let’s get together Monday at 1pm.
RED 250 OK
RED 221 RED.RUTGERS.EDU Service closing transmission channel
First, note that commands all use normal text. This is typical of the Internet standards. Many of the protocols use standard ASCII commands. This makes it easy to watch what is going on and to diagnose problems. For example, the mail program keeps a log of each conversation. If something goes wrong, the log file can simply be mailed to the postmaster. Since it is normal text, he can see what was going on. It also allows a human to interact directly with the mail server, for testing. (Some newer protocols are complex enough that this is not practical. The commands would have to have a syntax that would require a significant parser. Thus there is a tendency for newer protocols to use binary formats. Generally they are structured like C or Pascal record structures.) Second, note that the responses all begin with numbers. This is also typical of Internet protocols. The allowable responses are defined in the protocol.
The numbers allow the user program to respond unambiguously. The rest of the response is text, which is normally for use by any human who may be watching or looking at a log. It has no effect on the operation of the programs. (However there is one point at which the protocol uses part of the text of the response.) The commands themselves simply allow the mail program on one end to tell the mail server the information it needs to know in order to deliver the message. In this case, the mail server could get the information by looking at the message itself. But for more complex cases, that would not be safe. Every session must begin with a HELO, which gives the name of the system that initiated the connection.
Then the sender and recipients are specified. (There can be more than one RCPT command, if there are several recipients.) Finally the data itself is sent. Note that the text of the message is terminated by a line containing just a period. (If such a line appears in the message, the period is doubled.) After the message is accepted, the sender can send another message, or terminate the session as in the example above.Generally, there is a pattern to the response numbers. The protocol defines the specific set of responses that can be sent as answers to any given command. However programs that don’t want to analyze them in detail can just look at the first digit. In general, responses that begin with a 2 indicate success. Those that begin with 3 indicate that some further action is needed, as shown above. 4 and 5 indicate errors. 4 is a “temporary” error, such as a disk filling.
The message should be saved, and tried again later. 5 is a permanent error, such as a non-existent recipient. The message should be returned to the sender with an error message.
(For more details about the protocols mentioned in this section, see RFC’s 821/822 for mail, RFC 959 for file transfer, and RFC’s 854/855 for remote logins. For the well-known port numbers, see the current edition of Assigned Numbers, and possibly RFC 814.)
Easy-RSA is a command line tool that significantly facilitates the establishment of a certification authority (CA or Certificate Authority) and the management of certificates. We